Different types of treatment of arterial hypertension
Arterial hypertension belongs to a group of diseases that require constant medical control and long-term treatment. Most often, adequate treatment of arterial hypertension helps to significantly reduce the risk of complications of the disease. At the same time, refusal of treatment affects the patient's health in a negative way and quickly leads to the exhaustion of the body's adaptive forces and the development of complications of the disease. There are two main directions of hypertension treatment: drug and non-drug treatment.
Do you need to treat hypertension?
This question arises for most patients with hypertension, especially when faced with the need to make drastic changes in their lives and abandon many "good habits", as well as follow a long and constant course of treatment. The answer to this question is clear: hypertension must be treated. The risk of hypertension affects not only the patient's quality of life, but also the issue of his life in general. As you know, in the absence of treatment, hypertension leads to life-threatening complications.
Treatment of hypertension: general principles
• Hypertension treatment differs in some characteristic features:
• This is a long-term treatment;
• The patient must strictly follow the doctor's instructions and the established treatment program;
• In the course of treatment, it is necessary to constantly monitor the development of the disease;
• Control of hypertension is partly a patient's responsibility. The patient will have to adjust himself according to his own well-being and level of blood pressure;
• A relationship of joint, coordinated work should be established between the patient and the doctor - the patient should help the doctor to better control the disease.
• Types of hypertension treatment
• As we said above, there are two main methods of treating hypertension: drug (drug) treatment, which involves taking various drugs that lower blood pressure, and non-drug (non-drug) treatment, which involves changing the patient's lifestyle.
Non-medical treatment or changing the patient's lifestyle is the first step in the treatment of all cases of hypertension. Sometimes this stage of treatment is sufficient to achieve reliable control of hypertension.
Non-medical treatment includes:
Weight loss is an effective measure to combat hypertension and diabetes. It is reliably known that after "losing" 10 kg. the patient "loses" body weight and 5-10 mm Hg. increased pressure. To assess your own weight, it is convenient to use the body mass index (BMI), which is calculated according to the formula: BMI = body weight (kg)/height2 (m).
BMI up to 24.9 - normal weight;
BMI from 25 to 29.9 overweight;
BMI over 30 obesity
Proper nutrition involves correction of nutrition both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. Proper nutrition, on the one hand, helps to fight excess weight, and on the other hand, normalizes the body's metabolism.
Reducing salt intake is one of the aspects of proper nutrition for hypertensive patients. Table salt helps increase blood pressure by retaining water in the body. Patients with hypertension are recommended to reduce their daily salt intake to 5 g. per day and limit the consumption of all foods with a high salt content. The correct "salt regimen" helps to lower blood pressure by 2-5 mm Hg.
An increase in the consumption of calcium, magnesium and potassium has a beneficial effect on the work of the cardiovascular system. Potassium, for example, strengthens the heart muscle, and magnesium relaxes blood vessels. These minerals are found in vegetables and dairy products.
Reducing alcohol consumption or completely avoiding alcohol reduces the risk of complications from the heart and brain. Also, giving up alcohol (patients drink alcohol) helps to lower blood pressure by 2-4 mm Hg.
The maximum permissible amount of alcohol per day corresponds to 50 ml. cognac, 150 ml. wine or one bottle of beer.
Quitting smoking and limiting coffee consumption is one of the most important aspects of non-medical treatment of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular risk.
Daily physical exercises significantly increase the effectiveness of hypertension treatment and reduce the risk of complications. Walking in the fresh air lasting from 30 minutes to an hour has the greatest effect. Regular physical activity lowers high blood pressure by 5-10 mm Hg.
Medical treatment of hypertension
Currently, there are a large number of drugs that lower blood pressure. The choice of a specific drug, determination of the dose and mode of use is performed by a specialist familiar with the patient's medical history. Independent treatment of arterial hypertension is strictly prohibited. It is also impossible to independently change the dosage of drugs or stop treatment.
Effective treatment of arterial hypertension involves combining both types of treatment (drug and non-drug).